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Перевод текстов по Английскому языку (ДО СибГУТИ)ID: 113794
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GOOD MANNERS – How not to behave badly abroad (by N. Ramshaw)
Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test. Imagine you have arranged a meeting at four o’clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they’re German, they’ll be bang on time. If they’re American, they’ll be 15 minutes early. If they’re British, they’ll be 15 minutes late, and you should allow up to an hour for the Italians.
When the European Community began to increase in size, several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was a joke, especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business friends.
 The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another and they rarely drink at lunchtime.
 The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed and watered before they discuss anything.
 Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of getting down to work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as taking it easy.
 American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by putting their feet on the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan, people would be shocked. Showing the soles of your feet is the height of bad manners. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.
The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behavior. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business card immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone’s status and position. When it is handed to a person in a superior position, it must be given and received with both hands, and you must take time to read it carefully, and not just put it in your pocket! Also the bow is a very important part of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter.
The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer to be casual and more informal, as illustrated by the universal “Have a nice day!” American waiters have a one-word imperative “Enjoy” The British, of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is the weather – unemotional and impersonal. In America, the main topic between strangers is the search to find a geographical link. “Oh, really? You live in Ohio? I had an uncle who once worked there”.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do”. Here are some final tips for travelers.
 In France you shouldn’t sit down in café until you’ve shaken hands with everyone you know.
 In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.
 In Pakistan you mustn’t wink. In is offensive.
 In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting, eating, drinking or smoking. Also, you should take care not to admire anything in your hosts’ home. They will feel that they have to give it to you.
 In Russia you must match your hosts drink for drink or they will think you are unfriendly.
 In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your eyes when you greet someone.
 In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as quickly as possible. You shouldn’t try to have a conversation until it is eaten.
THE MARKETING STRATEGY
1. To market a product successfully, a marketer must develop strategy. The marketing strategy is more efficient (of time and money) if it is aimed at those people the company can reasonably expect to serve.
2. From studying the demographic data, the manager might decide to aim his strategy towards a very specific target, or segment of the population, as an example. An automobile company provides a common example of this strategy, with the wide variety of style, purpose and cost of its cars. The marketing programs of one car company might vary as widely as its products.
3. In planning the strategy for marketing his product, a marketer will want to know all he can about consumers’ needs and wants for it, their motives for buying or not buying it, their perceptions of the product (how it looks, feels) and their attitude towards it and the company.
4. Whether the potential market is domestic or foreign, it is necessary for the marketing manager to understand the internal and external determinals of consumer behavior. All people are supposed to have some needs, motives, and perceptions. All are members of groups, societies and cultures. Despite all human variety there are patterns of behavior. One of the marketer’s tasks is to know the buying patterns of specific groups of consumers and to match his products to their needs.
1. A brand is a name, sign, symbol, design or some combinations of those, used to identify one company’s offerings and to distinguish them to a competitor’s. A brand name is that part of the brand that can be spoken. For instance, the style of lettering on Coca-Cola bottle is familiar throughout the world. That is part of the Coca-Cola brand or identity. But it cannot be spoken, while the words ‘Coca-Cola’ can. Coca-Cola is the brand name. Brand names should be easy to pronounce, recognize and remember; they be create a desirable idea or image in consumer’s mind; and they should be legally protectable.
2. There art thee levels of brand acceptance: recognition, preference and insistence. A new product with a new name aims for the first level, simply bringing the brand if it is easily available, though they may not go out of their way to find it. Brand insistence – “I will have this brand and no other” – is the goal of most companies, but it is seldom achieved. The second major means of product identification is its packaging. The original purpose of a package was to hold and protect its contents, but now it has much greater importance in marketing.
3. For some types of consumer goods, the packaging is likely to be more important than product itself. It may be the primary tool for selling the product. The package must be easy for the consumer to open, use and store. It must communicate information: the brand name, the nature of the contents and any directions for the product’s use. Finally it must be distinctive and attractive enough to catch the attention of the customer. Color is especially important. However, the designer of a package for foreign markets must be aware that colour can have very different meanings in different countries of the world.
1. A new product is anything that is new to consumer, even a modification of an old product or a change in name or packaging. A firm that wants to stay in business has to give constant consideration to introducing new products, in order to meet the changing desires of consumers. Because of potential for growth, the idea of offering a new product can be very attractive to a company. But producing something new can also be hazardous for as many as 90 per cent of new products fail.
2. Some of the most common reasons for failure are these: inadequate market research, problems with the product itself, unexpectedly high production costs, entering the market at the wrong time, insufficient preparation and testing of the product, competition, poor organization of the marketing effort and failure to study, the reasons for failure and so to learn to testing before the product is introduced in the market.
3. Some of the best ideas for the new product are expected to come to customers themselves and to customers’ complaints. Ideas may also come to within the company, to employee suggestions, analysis of the competition, or the research and development department. Independent consulting groups might be hired to outside the company. Crucial to the success of a new product is its identity in the mind of the consumer, an identity created principally by brand and distinctive packaging.
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