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Экзамен по дисциплине: Английский языкID: 138400
Дата закачки: 04 Марта 2014
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Тип работы: Работа Экзаменационная
Форматы файлов: Microsoft Word
I ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПИСЬМЕННОГО ПЕРЕВОДА
Speaker. Have you ever heard of these companies: Apple Computer, Atari, and the Federal Express Corporation? Maybe you have heard of them, but do you know anything about the men who started them? Well, Steven Jobs was a twenty-one-year-old college dropout when he and a friend started Apple Computer in 1977. Today he is a very rich man, worth more than $I50 million. Nolan Bushnell, the man who started Atari, became rich and famous in 1972 when he invented Pong, the first video game. At that time he was twenty years old. In 1976 he sold Atari for $28 million. The third company. Federal Express, delivers packages anywhere in the United States in twenty-four hours or less. Its president is Frederick Smith. He is forty-one years old. This young company is worth more than $600 million.
What do Steven Jobs, Nolan Bushnell, and Frederick Smith have in common? Well, to begin with, they are all relatively young. Second, they are all rich; and, most important, each of them became rich by doing something that no other person had done before. In other words, the Apple was the first home computer; Pong was the. first video game; Federal Express was the first overnight delivery service. Steven Jobs, Nolan Bushnell, and Frederick Smith became rich and famous because each of them started a new industry. In English, we call people like them entrepreneurs.
So, the definition of an entrepreneur is “a person who organizes and manages a new business.” Most of today\'s successful entrepreneurs, like the three I\'ve already mentioned, are young. Some of them come to rich families, but others are poor. Some have a lot of education, but some, like Steven Jobs, never finished college. As you can see, entrepreneurs can come to many different backgrounds. However, all entrepreneurs have one important characteristic in common: They are not afraid to take risks. We could say that they are all gamblers.
II SKILLS OF NEGOTIATING
Most negotiations are conducted with a view to reaching a compromise agreement. Both parties together move towards an outcome which is to mutual benefit.
This is a range of tactics which can help conduct negotiations.
It‘s no use immediately discussing business matters. The topic at the outset of negotiations should be neutral, non-business. It could be immediate experiences, the sort of journey the visitor has had; football, ice-hockey, the morning‘s newspaper headlines, common interests, etc.
Five per cent of the negotiating time is devoted to breaking the ice. The two parties adjust their thinking and behaviour to one another.
If you want to follow the reaction of your visitor introduce in your speech the question – “Agree?”
At the very beginning of the talks get agreement covering the purpose, plan, agenda of a meeting.
Here is some advice to a negotiator.
1. First discuss major items, then minor items.
2. Follow the headines of the plan one by one.
3. Come over to the next point after you have resolved the previous one.
There are always differences of view between the parties.
Here is some advice on problem-solving tactics.
1. Present a problem in general and obtain the other party‘s view on it.
2. Look together at the possibilities of joint advantage.
3. Suggest practical actions to resolve a problem.
If negotiations are difficult and you are in a deablock, take time-out. It‘ll help you build bridges between yourself and your partner when you resume negotiations.
III INSURANCE OF GOODS
The export trade is subject to many risks. Ships may sink or collide: consignments may be lost or damaged. All sensible businessmen now insure goods for the fill value. The idea of insurance is to obtain indemnity in case of damage or loss. Insurance is against risk.
While the goods are in a warehouse, the insurance covers the risk of fire, burglary, etc.
As soon as the goods are in transit they are insured against pilferage, damage by water, breakage or leakage. Other risks may also be covered.
The insured is better protected if his goods are insured against all risks. The goods may be also covered against general and particular average.
In the insurance business the word average means loss.
Particular average refers to risks affecting only one shipper‘s consignment.
General aveage refers to a loss incurred by one consignor but shared by all the other consignors who use the same vessel on the same voyage.
Russian foreign trade organizations in most cases take out insurance with lngosstrakh. Goods may be insured as well with some other insurance companies which have recently appeared in this country.
IV FORCE MAJEURE
Force majeure is a force against which you cannot act or fight. Every contract has a force majeure clause. It usually includes natural disasters such as an earthquake, flood, fire, etc. It can also list such contingencies as war, embargo, sanctions. Along with this there are some other circumstances beyond the Sellers” control. The Seller may find himself in a situation when he can`t fulfil his obligation under the Contract. It may happen if there is a general strike in the country, a strike of coal-miners, transport workers etc. Production may be suspended if there is a shortage of the energy supply. When negotiating a contract a list of contingencies must be argeed on and put into the Contract.
When a manager makes up a contract he must not think only of his one-sided interest. He must think in terms of interest with his counterpart. Only then he will prove loyal to his partner.
In case of a contingency the Seller must notify the Buyers of
force majeure. The Article of the Contract to this effect may run:
“Should the Seller fail to notify the Buyer of a contingency the Seller is denied a right to refer to these circumstances”. The Seller is to notify the Buyer of a contingency right away. If it\'s done in due time the Buyer may take immediate action to protect his interest. He may sign a contract with another supplier on similar terms or if it\'s impossible he will secure the best possible terms he can have at the moment. If prices are rising he will be quick to act and will do everything possible to negotiate the best price obtainable at the moment.
A force majeure must be a proven fact. The Seller is to submit to the Buyer a written confirmation issued by the Chamber of Commerce to this effect. The certificate testifies that a contingency really took place. It describes its nature and confirms its duration.
In a dispute between the Buyer and the Seller not only the fact of a contingency is to be ascertained. The Seller must have evidence that non-execution of a contract or its partial fulfillment is a direct result of a contingency. If it is proved the Seller is not liable and the execution of a contract is postponed until all the after-effects causing damage are eliminated. A natural disaster may last only a few minutes but it\'ll take a lot of lime to recover the loss.
The duration of a force majeure is, as a rule, 4 or 6 months. After that the Buyer has a right to cancel the contract. The Seller in this case has no right to claim any compensation for his losses.
The case for and against
Would you like to be a teleworker? Teleworkers are people who work for companies, but not in companies. That is to say, they do company work at home, usually on computers.
Teleworkers communicate with their supervisors by telephone or fax. They usually transfer information to their own computer to the office computer by electronic means. Some companies also give video phones to their home wokers so they can see colleagues when they speak to them.
`Teleworking\' is becoming more and more popular in Britain and in the USA; (in the USA, it is called \'Telecommuting\'). At the moment, about 6% of the working population employed by companies work at home, but experts estimate that this will rise to more than 15% before the end of the century.
There are many reasons for this increase. The biggest advantage for companies is that teleworking reduces their running costs. Fewer employees at work means less office space. Also, computers are now quicker and easier to use, and the price has fallen sharply. For a company which needs more manpower, one of the cheapest solutions can be to train employees in computer skills and to give them a personal computer to use at home.
But before you apply for a job as a teleworker, you should ask yourseif if it is really the best situation for you. Bill Farrar, who works for a big paper recycling company, hasn\'t enjoyed his last three months al home. \'I often fall asleep at the computer because I don\'t have anybody to talk to,\' he says. \'So, al lunchtimes, I often go to the nearest bar - which is just at the end of my road - and then the afternoon is gone!\' Next week, he\'s starting a new job in a company where there are five people in one small office. \'I can\'t wait!\' he says.
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